Coaching and Mentoring

Coaching and Mentoring


Evaluation of mentoring process

Your reflective account of your experience and learning on the module, including how as a Mentor you managed the process of mentoring, the mentoring relationship and feedback.

1. Based first on awareness–what are you aware of and what do you call it. Reflection is influenced by experience, linguistic distinctions (you probably can’t notice what you don’t have a category for), and theory (prediction of what to look for).
2. Interpretation involves seeing relationships, patterns and connections. It involves attribution of causation, which in turn involves ascribing meaning to an event; “What does it mean (to me/us)?”
3. Application takes meaning and asks how it can be used. This results in making predictions (hypotheses) about the patterns that have been observed, to see if what happens next matches the prediction. For example, one might notice that a team member is increasingly quiet and withdrawn, and might reasonably predict that if it continues, then absenteeism will begin. This stage also involves using interpretation to design constructive action to make a difference. For example, rather than allow the member to become marginalized, one might take a gatekeeper role and involve them more.
4. The last stage of the cycle (which becomes the first stage and contributes data to reflection) is engagement. During this stage the person shifts from the reflective process and becomes immersed in the task to be accomplished.


How to reconstruct your experience of the module for new understanding?

ACTIVITY – Identify some organising principles that could be applied to your experience of the module:
Kathy Kram Examined the phases of a mentor relationship from the perspective of psychological and organizational factors that influence career and psychological functions performed. She suggests that developmental relationships vary in length but generally proceed through four predictable, yet not entirely distinct, phases.
Phase, stage or level Example or exception Critical incidents
Initiation – period in which the relationship is conceived and becomes important to both mentor & mentee

Cultivation – the positive expectations that emerged during the initiation phase are continually tested against reality. The mentor and mentee discover the real value of relating to each other and clarify the boundaries of their relationship.
Separation – marked by significant changes in the relationship at the end of a key stage in their career. It is a Tonnye when the mentee experiences new independence and autonomy, as well as turmoil, anxiety, and feelings of loss.
Redefinition – the relationship takes on significantly different characteristics and becomes either a more peer-like friendship or one that is characterized by hostility and resentment. In general, during the redefinition phase, both the mentor and mentee recognize that a shift in developmental tasks has occurred and that the previous mentorship process is no longer needed or desired.

1. Role set analysis; role conflict; role overload – RK Merton
2. Group roles and team effectiveness – Meredith Belbin
3. Assumptions Perceptions and Feelings – Gabarro Joseph Gabarro
4. Transactional analysis – Berne
5. Group life cycle analysis – Tuckman
6. Cultural mapping – Trompenaars and Hofstede
7. Competencies – Quinn
8. Leadership behaviours – Yukl, Kotter, Nanus, Bennis
9. Contingency – Tannenbaum and Schmidt, Fiedler

Edgar Schein contends successful mentors at some Tonnye in their relationship with their mentee should be: Teachers, coaches, trainers, role models, protectors, and sponsors.

Which of these applied to your own experience of mentoring in the course? For each provide an example of a situation or event in which you played each of these roles contributing to the knowledge and experience of your mentee. If any of these roles was not a part of the experience, explain why.

Role Example of what you did in this role, or if you did not perform this role, why you were not able to

What did your role as a mentor entail? Please select from the following list the items that applied to your experience in this programme. You may amend any of the items on this suggested list, or add any items that are not there. When you have identified the items that apply, please rate each of these on a 5 point scale:

Your role as a mentor
Please use the following weighting:
5=Highest important, 4= Very Important, 3=Important,
2=Somewhat important 1 Of little or no importance, NA= not applicable
5 4 3 2 1
1. To help the mentee complete their course assignments
2. To help the mentee to develop skills they need to perform well on the course
3. To offer the mentee counselling and support
4. To help the mentee adjust to or solve problems of being a member of university
5. To help the mentee work well as a member of a group
6. To help the mentee learn to relate well with their superiors (mentor, others)
7. To help the mentee become independent and self-reliant
8. Help the mentee to prepare to search for a job
9. Help the mentee develop the skills they need to be selected for a job
10. Help the mentee develop skills they need in employment
11. Help the mentee develop networks and contact for their career
12. Other (Please write in)

15. It is essential to develop an effective relationship with the mentee.
16. It is essential for the mentee to respect the mentor.
17. The mentoring scheme is a very important part of my management education.
18. Mentee’s feedback to the mentor is valuable for developing management skills
19. Effective mentoring is impossible without having any power over the mentee
20. The mentor gets nothing out of the process unless the mentee does their work
21. Mentoring is a waste of Tonnye.
22. I still do not understand what a mentor is supposed to do.
23. Mentoring is an excellent way to develop communication skills
24. Mentoring is an excellent way to develop leadership skills
25. Help the mentee develop networks and contact for their career


Within the process of mentoring, a mentor often assumes multiple roles to bring about the enhancement of the mentee’s professional, personal, and psychological development.

Role Role expectations Example from your own experience
Coach Operationalisation of tasks

Mentor Emotional support for adjustment
Mentor Review of mentee’s integration into organisation
Mentee Initiate interface with both functional and personal
Liaison & conflict management Reconcile conflict between functionally compatible and incompatible roles and coordinate functions
Ashburn defines mentoring as follows. Which of the following apply to your own experience of mentoring, and provide an example of each? If any of these did not apply to this experience of mentoring, reflect on why this did not apply in this case.

Role or activity, qualities or skills Example from this experience, and if not, why not
Establishment of a personal relationship for the purposes of professional instruction and guidance
Qualities and skills you possess of particular importance in a mentoring relationship

A number of studies of mentoring have identified important factors which influence the mentoring process and experience. Below is listed some of these factors. Provide examples of as many of these factors as you noted in your experience of this mentoring scheme:



Degree of formality in the mentoring process (Meggison )



Attitude and abilities of mentors and mentees (Sullivan )
Context of the mentoring process (Kleinman Ragins )



Quantity and quality of training received by mentors (Gregson )




Start with yourself:

What are your orientations and preferences?
What were your expectations?
• If you understand yourself you will understand others better
• Understanding people is an inside-out process that starts with yourself as an individual
• Consider different ways to understand your emotions
• Process and content – start a process that will continue beyond the end of the course

Joseph Gabarro – Understanding Communications in one-to-one relationships
• Assumptions
• Perceptions
• Feelings
• What happened and why it happened that way?
• Reflect on your own development and actual examples of what has been developed?
• Evaluate what you liked and what you would like to change?
• Evaluate how did the experience match your expectations?
• Evaluate how the mentoring experience helped you to clarify your own career goals.
• What new insights do you have about managing people?
• What might you want to do next?


What do I want to learn/achieve?
What will I do to achieve this?
What resources or support will I need? Measurement:
What will my success criteria be? Review & Tonnye Scale:
Date and method of review
1. To improve my interpersonal skills, in particular my ability to actively listen and question and to avoid dominating a conversation.


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